Какие варианты анестезии существуют?

What anesthesia options are available?

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Basically, all methods of anesthesia are divided into 5 types:
General anesthesia is not only the oldest, but also to this day the most common method of protection against operational stress. General anesthetics provide reversible suppression of the central nervous system with suppression of pain perception. Historically, it is customary to distinguish between inhalation and intravenous anesthesia-depending on the main route of administration of the anesthetics used.

Regional anesthesia consists in blocking the passage of pain from the peripheral nerves to the central nervous system by injecting a solution of local anesthetic into the perineural space. Thus, the area of surgical intervention becomes insensitive to pain. The use of epidural or spinal anesthesia (the introduction of an anesthetic solution into the space surrounding the spinal cord) allows you to anesthetize fairly large areas. As an independent method of anesthesia, it is most often used in operations on the extremities and the lower part of the abdominal cavity.

Combined anesthesia is a method of anesthesia when general anesthesia is combined with regional methods of anesthesia. It can be used in operations on the abdominal and thoracic organs. It allows not only to achieve the most effective anesthesia, but also to reduce the dose of drugs used for anesthesia, reducing its risk.

Terminal or local infiltration anesthesia-this type of anesthesia provides a blockade of the nerve endings and trunks in the operation area by injecting a solution of local anesthetic. Currently, it is used only in outpatient surgery and as a component of complex treatment when performing "large" operations.

Anaesthetic support is usually used when performing painless diagnostic procedures or manipulations. The anesthesiologist is present, supervises the progress of the procedure, but does not intervene until the need arises. Its actions are aimed at eliminating the threat or minimizing possible damage and may not be related to its own anesthesia.
The material was prepared with the support of the All-Russian public organization "Federation of Anesthesiologists and Resuscitators".


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