Эндоскопическая хромоскопия: точная диагностика болезней пищевода, желудка и кишечника

Endoscopic chromoscopy: precise diagnosis of esophageal, gastric and intestinal diseases

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Endoscopic chromoscopy is a modern and informative method of diagnosing diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. The essence of the method: during gastroscopy or colonoscopy, special stains are applied to the mucous membranes. They are absorbed differently by healthy and "sick" cells. The areas with altered coloring are examined in detail. Tissues are sampled there for laboratory analysis, i.e. biopsy with histological examination.

As a result, endoscopic chromoscopy with high reliability reveals changes in organs that are not visible during conventional examination, without staining. This allows early diagnosis of diseases of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum and colon, including cancer. Accurate diagnosis preserves the health and, in many cases, the life of the patient.

Reasons to see a doctor

Many diseases of the gastrointestinal tract have no symptoms. Sometimes the patient may not suspect that he or she is developing a serious disease. Endoscopic chromoscopy of gastrointestinal organs diagnoses the disease at an early stage. This makes it possible to prescribe treatment in time.

See the doctor if you are concerned about:
- heartburn;
- abdominal pain of a constant nature;
- nausea and vomiting;
- burning in the area of the esophagus (behind the sternum);
- lump in the throat or pain when swallowing;
- abnormal bowel function (constipation or diarrhea);
- Sudden and unexplained weight loss;
- mucus or blood in the stool.

Indications for chromoscopy

Gastroscopy or colonoscopy with chromoscopy is recommended in case of complaints or for preventive purposes. Prophylactic examination is especially indicated if there are risk factors for cancer and other diseases that cause gastrointestinal bleeding. These include age over 50 years and close relatives with serious gastrointestinal diseases: ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, polyps, and malignant tumors. It is obligatory have a consultation with your doctor before the examination.

Thanks to chromoendoscopy, the following can be detected:
- pre-cancerous changes of mucous membranes (e.g., dysplasia);
- polyps;
- ulcerations;
- early-stage cancer, before symptoms appear.

Chromoscopy of the esophagus

It is performed to diagnose:
- Barrett's esophagus, a precancerous condition in which the epithelium of the esophagus is replaced by a cylindrical one characteristic of the intestine;
- Reflux esophagitis, an inflammation that occurs when acidic stomach contents are thrown into the esophagus;
- gastric heterotopia - appearance of cells characteristic of the stomach on the esophageal mucosa.

Chromoscopy of the stomach and duodenum

A method necessary to clarify the diagnosis of:
- chronic gastritis;
- celiac disease - gluten intolerance to wheat and other grains;
- polyps and other benign tumors;
- Pre-cancerous diseases and cancer.

Colon chromoscopy

It is used in the diagnosis of:
- intestinal dysplasia, a precancerous condition;
- flat polyp-like masses that are invisible or difficult to detect during conventional colonoscopy;
- ulcerative colitis;
- Crohn's disease.

Advantages of the method

Chromoscopy improves the quality of endoscopic examination. The technique detects diseases of the gastrointestinal tract that are invisible during conventional endoscopy.

Endoscopic chromoscopy is used to:
- accurate diagnosis (better visualization of lesion foci);
- determination of biopsy sites, i.e. targeted "plucking" of tissue for further histological examination;
- precise identification of the boundaries and area of the mucosal lesions;
- control during endoscopic surgery;
- complete removal of polyps and altered foci during endoscopy;
- checking the condition of the mucosa after treatment.

Chromoscopy significantly increases the accuracy of the endoscopic conclusion. Sensitivity and specificity of the method is about 98-99%. Endoscopic chromoscopy provides an accurate diagnosis and patient's peace of mind for his health.


- allergic reactions to the agent used in chromoscopy;
- severe narrowing of the organs as a result of burns or chronic disease, when the physician is unable to pass the endoscope;
- damage to blood vessels at the site of stain spraying.

In acute infectious diseases the procedure is postponed until the patient recovers.

Preparing for examination

Before the examination during the preliminary consultation the doctor tells you in detail about the peculiarities of preparation. Before chromoscopy of the esophagus, stomach or duodenum we recommend reading the information "How to prepare for an FGS". Before an endoscopic colon chromoscopy, the patient undergoes a comprehensive preparation and cleans the colon in the same way as before a colonoscopy.


Endoscopic chromoscopy is performed in a state of medically induced sleep. During the procedure, the patient's condition is constantly monitored by the anesthesiologist, which guarantees complete safety.

Drug sedation relaxes the smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract. The doctor calmly and accurately performs the staining and all necessary manipulations.

How chromoscopy works

Chromoscopy is an outpatient procedure. It is performed during an endoscopic examination - esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGDS) or colonoscopy. The duration is about 20 minutes.

After the examination, the doctor stains the mucous membrane through a special sprayer. It is inserted into the examined organ through the working channel of the endoscope.

After applying the stain, the doctor once again carefully examines the condition of the mucosa. Sometimes during the procedure up to three different drugs for staining are used sequentially. In most cases before applying the next stain, the mucosa is washed from the previous one. Finally, a tissue fragment is taken from the changed areas for further laboratory examination.

What stains are used?

The stain is selected according to the patient's tolerance and the suspected diseases. For example, congo red is used to stain the esophagus for reflux and gastric heterotopias.

Combined esophageal chromoscopy is an indispensable diagnostic method when Barrett's esophagus is suspected. The physician first applies a solution of acetic acid, followed by Lugol's solution and methylene blue. Methylene blue staining reveals foci of high-grade dysplasia. These are precancerous conditions.

Indigocarmine enhances the relief of the mucosa, which allows detecting gastric and intestinal cancer at an early stage. This stain is also used to diagnose celiac disease - atrophy of the villi of the mucosa of the duodenum. All stains used are safe for the patient's body.


The results of the examination are given immediately after endoscopic chromoscopy. The histological report is ready in 10-14 days.

After the procedure the patient goes home immediately. After medicated sleep, you should not drive a car for a few hours.

After chromoscopy, a sparing diet is recommended for a day. If gastrointestinal diseases are identified during the study, a consultation with a gastroenterologist or coloproctologist is required. The doctor will suggest a treatment tactic.



Endoscopic chromoscopy


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  1. Дорогие пациенты! Многие из Вас ходят к нам годами и даже десятилетиями , а кто-то пришел впервые.

    Поделитесь, пожалуйста, с нами, что нам улучшить в работе нашей клиники.

    Очень благодарны за внимание!